The South African law gives every person a fundamental right to an environment that is not harmful to his or her well-being, and requires the environment to be protected for the benefit of the present and future generations. The National Environmental Management Act No. 107 of 1998 (NEMA) provides the structure for all environmental decision-making of individuals, institutions and the government. One contamination study that GEOSS has been involved with is for a site with an approximately 100 year history, predating NEMA (1998). By assessing potential sources of contamination (boilers. diesel generators, electric transformers, heavy fuel oil tanks, coal storage and ash disposal). pathways (groundwater, soils and vapour) and receptors (on site personnel & proximal groundwater users) GEOSS was able to evaluate the site risk. Through an initial screening study (Phase 1) GEOSS was able to design and conduct focused sampling to ensure efficient use of resources in the characterization of the site.